Global CO2 emissions

Global CO2 emissions shooting back to record high levels

Fossil fuels are surging in post-pandemic recovery as scientists warn 1.5C emission limit will be breached in 11 years.

Global carbon emissions are shooting back to the record level seen before the coronavirus pandemic levels, new analysis has shown. According to a report in The Guardian, scientists said the finding is a “reality check” for the world’s nations gathered at the COP26 climate summit.

The emissions driving the climate crisis reached their highest ever levels in 2019, before global coronavirus lockdowns saw them fall by 5.4%. However, fossil fuel burning has surged faster than expected in 2021, said the international research team, in stark contrast to the rapid cuts needed to tackle planetary warming.

The data shows world leaders have failed to build back greener, with just a small proportion of pandemic spending going to sustainable sectors. But the scientists said hopes of keeping global heating to 1.5C will remain alive if Cop26 leads to rapid global action.

The Global Carbon Project (GCP) report shows emissions from coal and gas jumping this year by more than they declined in 2020. Oil use is also rising, but more slowly because transport activity remains below normal.

Global fossil CO2 emissions

Unlike most countries, emissions in the world’s biggest polluter, China, rose slightly during the pandemic in 2020 and are expected to rise another 4% in 2021. Although India has very low emissions per person, it will see CO2 rise 12.6% in 2021, almost double the decline in 2020.

The US and EU27 will also see sharp rises of 7.6% in 2021, but remain on a longer term trend of slowly declining emissions. Renewables were the only energy source that continued to grow during the pandemic.

The scientists said 2022 could set a new record for global emissions, depending on whether the expected increased in oil consumption, as travel recovers further, is offset by reversal of the surge in coal burning seen in 2021.

The world’s “carbon budget” is defined as being the total emissions allowed to retain a 50% chance of keeping global temperature rise below 1.5C. However analysis shows this will be exceeded in 11 years if the current rate of emissions continues.

“What is surprising is that the rebound in emissions happened so quickly, in spite of the fact that much of the global economy has not yet recovered,” said Prof Corinne Le Quéré, at the University of East Anglia, UK, and one of the analysis team. “This is really a reality check.”

“However, we do not yet see the effect of the climate policy decisions that will be taken at Cop26 in Glasgow, which could be really a gamechanger,” she said. “1.5C is still alive. The decrease in emissions needed is very large indeed, but feasible with concerted action.”

Glen Peters, at the Centre for International Climate Research in Oslo, Norway, said: “Many of us were expecting a recovery spread out over a few years, as opposed to a big hit in 2021.” He observed Covid recovery funding had been too “dirty”, with not enough low-carbon investment. “If we continue on the current trajectory, then that may push emissions in 2022 up.”

Prof Pierre Friedlingstein, at the University of Exeter, UK, said: “To achieve net zero by 2050, we must cut emissions every year by an amount comparable to that seen during Covid. This highlights the scale of the action that is now required, and the importance of Cop26.”

The 196 nations at the Cop26 summit are charged with pushing national pledges to cut emissions towards that needed for 1.5C, with India’s new commitment to net zero a notable advance. But the $100bn promised by rich nations to poorer nations has yet to be delivered. Voluntary international pacts to end deforestation, cut methane emissions and make green technology the cheapest option have been announced, but global warming will only stop when emissions reach net zero.

The GCP report was produced by almost 100 scientists from 70 organisations across the world and, based on the figures to date, calculates that CO2 emissions from fossil fuels will rise by between 4.1% and 5.7% in 2021, compared with a fall of 5.4% in 2020. That fall is bigger than seen after the global financial crisis in 2008 (1.2%) and the collapse of the Soviet Union (3.1%).

Emissions will have to be reduced by even greater amounts to hit net zero by 2050. But Le Quéré said: “We know what to do: move out of coal, electrify transport, and reforest.” She said a quarter of emissions come from countries that had been steadily decreasing emissions while growing their economies, including the UK, Germany, the US, Japan and Mexico.

“The key message is to resist the temptation to be discouraged by our latest findings,” she said. “The commitments being put in place at Cop26 are really important. It’s important that the countries agree on what they’re going to do and then, of course, plan for immediate implementation.”

Read the complete article in the The Guardian.